Due to gravitational effect of the Moon, the energy of Earth's rotation is
slowly being absorbed by the Moon. Hence Earths orbit is slowing down
approximately by 2/100ths of a second per century,
thus making each and every new day the longest day on Earth.
If you want to refer to the longest day as the day with the longest hours of
sunlight, then it would be around June 21st, when
the sun reaches it's most northerly point. This day is known as the summer
solstice. The exact length of daylight hours vary on your latitude, the
farther north you go, the longer the day. All this is true only in the
Northern Hemisphere, in the Southern Hemisphere all this happens around December 21st.
At the North Pole the sun may not set for a couple of
weeks making for one long day, but at the South Pole it's one long night.
Then there is late October when many places set their
clocks back 1 hour making for about a 25 hour day.
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